University of Regina
Department of Sociology and Social Science
Sociology 217:001 Social Structure of Rural Societies
Instructor: Dr. John W. Warnock Fall semester, 2003
Monday Evenings, 7 to 9:45 p.m. Classroom Building 407
The course will be an introduction to the changing structures of rural life. It will examine pre-capitalist and peasant agricultural societies, the impact of colonialism on rural societies, rural and remote areas and their relationship to urban centres, the relationship between domestic commodity producers and the capitalist market, and the move towards industrial agriculture. There will be an analysis of the structure of patriarchy in rural and remote areas. While emphasis will be on rural communities in agricultural areas, coverage will also be given to other resource extraction economies in remote rural areas. Special emphasis will be on Saskatchewan and Canada. The course will also look at various theories of rural social change.
TEXTS FOR THE COURSE:
There is no text for the course. A series of readings have been compiled through the university's Cancopy system and will be available in the University of Regina bookstore.
Additional readings will be assigned from the following journal. Five copies are on the Sociology 217 reserve in the Main Library for overnight use:
Fred Magdoff, Frederick H. Buttel and John Bellamy Foster, eds. "Hungry for Profit; Agriculture, Food and Ecology." Monthly Review, Vol. 50, July/August 1998. Special issue.
Other special reading materials will be distributed in the class.
A research paper is required, and it will represent 50 percent of the mark for the course, due on November 24, 2003. The research process will be discussed in class. There will be a mid-term exam for the course, which will be on October 20; it will count for 25 percent of the mark for the course. There will be a final exam for the course; it will be worth 25 percent of the final mark.
September 8: Introduction to the course. What is rural sociology? The origins of agriculture.
Howard Newby and Frederick H. Buttel, " Toward a Critical Rural Sociology."
Ellen M. Wood, "The Agrarian Origins of capitalism. In Magdoff, pp. 14-31.
September 15 Social structure of pre-capitalist agricultural communities: mode of production and the economic surplus.
John W. Warnock, "Economics, Political Economy and Human Society."
September 22 The impact of colonialism and European capitalism on rural and agricultural areas..
John Madeley, "Third World Agriculture: Who Grows What?"
George L. Beckford, "Plantations in Third World Economy."
September 29 Resource extraction, remote communities and enclave development.
Roy T. Bowles, "Single Industry Resource Communities in Canada's North."
October 6 Domestic commodity production and the politics of populism.
Reading assignment:John W. Warnock, "Populism of the Political Left and Right."
Craig Palmer and Peter Sinclair, "Introduction to When the Fish are Gone."
Research topics due.
October 13 Patriarchy and rural societies: the origin of patriarchy, theories, and its persistence in rural societies.
Sally Shortall, "Women and Farming Organizations."
Marit S. Haugen, "Rural Women's Family and Property Law: Lessons from Norway."John W. Warnock, "The Persistence of Patriarchy."
October 20 Mid Term exam. Class discussion of research papers and topics.
October 27 Rural communities as hinterland areas.
Janine Brodie, "Theories of Regional Imbalance."
John W. Warnock, "Regional Disparity and Hinterland Areas.
November 3 The industrial agrifood system and international food chains.
William D. Heffernan, "Agriculture and Monopoly Capital." In Magdoff et al, pp. 46-54.
R.C. Lewontin, "The Maturing of Capitalist Agriculture: Farmer as Proletarian, in Magdoff, pp. 72-84.
Thomas N. Urban, "Industrialization of the World's Food System."
November 10 Downgraded labour: women and farm workers in rural communities.
Fiona Wilson, "Workshops as Domestic Domains."
B. Singh Bolaria, "Farm Labour, Work Conditions and Health Risks."
Enzo Mingione and Enrico Pugliese, "Rural Subsistence, Migration, Urbanization, and the New Global Food Regime."
November 17. Ecological issues in rural, agricultural Canada.
Miguel A. Altieri, "Ecological Impacts of Industrial Agriculture and the Possibility for Truly Sustainable Farming." In Magdoff, pp. 60-71.
Gerald Middendorf et al, "New Agricultural Biotechnologies: The Struggle for Democratic Choice." In Magdoff et al, pp. 85-96.
John Bellamy Foster and Fred Magdoff, "Liebig, Marx, and the Depletion of Soil Fertility: Relevance for Today's Agriculture." In Magdoff, pp. 32-45.
November 24. Is sustainable agriculture possible in the era of free trade?
Philip McMichael, "Global Food Politics." In Magdoff et al, pp. 97-111.
John Madeley, "Trade Liberalization." 15 pp.
Darrin Qualman and Nettie Wiebe, "Structural Adjustment of Canadian Agriculture." 15 pp.
Research papers due.
December 1 Popular resistance to capitalist, industrial agriculture and the neoliberal order.
Elizabeth Henderson, "Rebuilding Local Food Systems from the Grassroots Up." in Magdoff et al, pp. 112-124.
Joel Kovel, "Beyond Populism."
Walden Bello, " The Multiple Crises of Global Capitalism."
Students will be asked to do a research paper within one of the following topic areas. These areas have been chosen because they represent key contemporary issues in rural Saskatchewan. The instructor will set aside time in class for a general discussion of the papers and the topic areas. The students are to choose a research paper by October 6. Topics should be approved by the instructor.
Students are reminded that they are to follow the University's regulations as stated in the undergraduate calendar. Assignments are expected to be on time. Special permission may be granted by the instructor for late assignments or missing an examination. It is expected that students will follow the general social science format in writing the research paper.
The research paper accounts for 50 percent of the mark for the class. It is expected that the student will research and write a serious paper. It should be no longer than 5,000 words, or roughly 20 pages, typed and double spaced.
(1) The impact of the free trade agreements on the prairie grain marketing system, meat production and rural communities. This would include increased dependence on the U.S. market, the demise of the marketing board system, the weakening of the co-operative system, and the expansion of large agribusiness corporations in the prairie market. What is the impact of increasing foreign ownership and control of the agribusiness sector?
(2) The introduction of large corporate hog barns to the prairie economy. Their introduction raises issues of environmental pollution, economic centralization, vertical integration with agribusiness corporations, and worker health and safety issues. Given their historic populist roots, why has the NDP government given this development such strong support? How have rural communities in Saskatchewan responded to this development?
(3) Biotechnology and biodiversity are major international issues in the food and development area. Biotechnology is well developed in Saskatchewan, where it has strong support from the provincial government and agribusiness. Cross genetic breeding is very controversial; in Saskatchewan it is done mainly to develop crops which can tolerate stronger applications of herbicides. It is seen by critics as the opposite of sustainable agriculture. On the world wide basis biotechnology is opposed by groups supporting small farmers, the rights of "third world" farmers, supporters of ecological agriculture and biodiversity, and those opposed to patenting plants and animal life. It has strong support from the large chemical and seed corporations, most governments, and the agricultural research community. Farm organizations are divided on the issue.
(4) The persistence of patriarchy in rural Canada and Saskatchewan is a continuing issue. Why is it that patriarchal values are so deeply entrenched in rural areas? How does this affect women in rural Saskatchewan? What role do rural institutions play in protecting patriarchal values? Why is it that the strongest support for REAL Women in Canada is found in rural Saskatchewan?
In recent years rural sociologists have begun to research and document how rural masculinities are created and protected. At the core of this is the dominant hegemonic position, that farmers are men, that men should own the agricultural land, and that farms should be passed on from father to son. In the United States, rural sociologists have begun to examine the rise of the right-wing militia groups as one form of rural masculinity. This is an area ripe for research in Saskatchewan.
(5) What are the problems associated with resource extraction industries in Saskatchewan? The extraction of uranium, potash, coal, oil, natural gas and wood products takes place primarily in isolated rural communities. What is the impact of the present system of resource extraction on Aboriginal communities?
(6) Aboriginal communities in the Saskatchewan farm belt. How have Aboriginal communities, based in rural Saskatchewan, adjusted to the shift to producing goods for consumption and the market? How have Aboriginal communities organized agricultural production? What is the experience of Aboriginal communities in dealing with mainstream farm and agribusiness organizations? How are they organizing the use of new land acquired under the Treaty Land Entitlement settlements?
The following is a selected list of references which students might find helpful in their research.
(1) General rural sociology sources:
Basok, Tanya. 1999. "Free to be Unfree: Mexican Guest Workers in Canada." Labour, Capital and Society, Vol. 32, No. 2, November, pp. 192-221.
Basran, G.S. and David A. Hay, eds. 1988. The Political Economy of Agriculture in Western Canada. Toronto: Garamond Press.
Bollman, Ray D., ed. 1992. Rural and Small Town Canada. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing.
Bowlby, Geoff. 2002. "Farmers Leaving the Field." Perspectives on Labour and Income, Vol. 14, No. 1, Spring, pp. 23-28.
Boyens, Ingeborg. 2001. Another Season's Promise; Hope and Despair in Canada's Farm Country. Toronto: Penguin Books Canada Ltd.
Browne, William P. et al. 1992. Sacred Cows and Hot Potatoes; Agrarian Myths in Agricultural Policy. Boulder: Westview Press.
Buttel, Frederick H. and Howard Newby, eds. 1980. The Rural Sociology of Advanced Societies; Critical Perspectives. London: Croom Helm.
Buttel, Frederick H., O.F. Larson and G. W. Gillespie, Jr. 1990. The Sociology of Agriculture. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
DuPuis, E. Melanie And Peter Vandergeest, eds. 1996. Creating the Countryside: The Politics of Rural and Environmental Discourse. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
De Haan, H. J. And N. Long, eds. 1997. Images and Realities of Rural Life. Assen: Van Gorcum.
Epp, Roger and Dave Whitson, eds. 2001. Writing Off the Rural West; Globalization, Governments and the Transformation of Rural Communities. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.
Geary, Daniel. 2002. "Migrant Farm Workers in California." New Labor Forum, No. 10, Spring, pp. 110-15.
Harper, Charles L. And Bryan F. LeBeau. 2003. Food, Society and Environment. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hay, David A. and G.S. Basran, eds. 1992. Rural Sociology in Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Kneen, Brewster. 1989. From Land to Mouth; Understanding the Food System. Toronto: N.C. Press.
Marsden, Thomas et al. 1993. Constructing the Countryside. Boulder: Westview Press.
Stroshane, Tim. 2000. "Fruit at the Hands of Labor." Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, Vol. 11, No. 1, March, pp. 153-80.
Thu, Kendall M. And E. Paul Durrenberger, eds. 1998. Pigs, Profits, and Rural Communities. Albany: State University Press of New York.
Wall, Ellen. 1994. "Farm Labour Markets and the Structure of Agriculture." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Vo. 31, No. 1, February, pp. 65-80.
Webber, Marlene. 1992. Food for Thought. Toronto: Coach House Press.
Whatmore, Sarah. 2001. Hybrid Geographies. London: Sage.
Winson, Anthony. 1992. The Intimate Commodity; Food and Development of the Agro-Industrial Complex in Canada. Toronto: Garamond Press.
(2) Regional disparities and rural areas in Canada
Brodie, Janine. 1990. The Political Economy of Canadian Regionalism. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Burrill, Gary and Ian McKay, eds. 1987. People, Resources, and Power; Critical Perspective on Underdevelopment and Primary Industries in the Atlantic Region. Frederickton: Acadiensis Press.
Higgins, Benjamin and Donald J. Savoie. 1997. Regional Development Theories and Their Application. London: Transaction Publishers.
Matthews, Ralph. 1983. The Creation of Regional Dependency. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
(3) Globalization and neoliberal policies and values
Allahar, Anton L. and James E. Cote. 1998. Richer and Poorer; The Structure of Inequality in Canada. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co.
Basran, Gurcharn, Charan Gill and Brian D. MacLean. 1995. Farm workers and Their Children. Vancouver: Collective Press.
Bonano, Alessandro et al., eds. 1994. From Columbus to ConAgra; The Globalization of Agriculture and Food. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.
Bradshaw, York W. and Michael Wallace. 1996. Global Inequalities. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Force Press.
Burbach, Roger et al. 1997. Globalization and its Discontents; the Rise of Postmodern Socialisms. London: Pluto Press.
Canada. Human Resources Development Canada. 1994. Agenda: Jobs and Growth; Improving Social Security in Canada. Hull: Human Resources Development Canada, October.
Chossudovsky, Michel. 1997. The Globalization of Poverty; Impacts of IMF and World Bank Reforms. New York: Zed Books.
Daly, Herman E. 1996. Beyond Growth; The Economics of Sustainable Development. Boston: Beacon Press.
Goodman, David and Michael J. Watts, eds. 1997. Globalising Food; Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring. London: Routledge.
Johnson, Andrew F., Stephen McBride and Patrick J. Smith, eds. 1994. Continuities and Discontinuities; The Political Economy of Social Welfare and Labour Market Policy in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
McBride, Stephen and John Shields. 1997. Dismantling a Nation; The Transition to Corporate Rule in Canada. Halifax: Fernwood Books.
Mandle, Jay R. 2003. Globalization and the Poor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Palmer, Craig and Peter Sinclair. 1997. When the Fish are Gone; Ecological disaster and Fishers in Northwest Newfoundland. Halifax: Fernwood Publishers.
Riches, Graham and Gordon Ternowetsky, eds. 1990. Unemployment and Welfare: Social Policy and the Work of Social Work. Toronto: Garamond Press.
de Rivero, Oswaldo. 2001. The Myth of Development; The Non-Viable Economies of the 21st Century. London: Zed Books.
Schrecker, Ted and Jean Dalgleish. 1994. Growth, Trade and Environmental Values. London: Westminister Institute for Ethics and Human Values.
Teeple, Gary. 1995. Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform. Toronto: Garamond Press.
Young, E. M. 1997. World Hunger. London: Routledge.
(4) Single industry towns in remote rural areas
Bowles, Roy T., ed. 1982. Little Communities and Big Industries: Studies in the Social Impact of Canadian Resource Extraction. Toronto: Butterworths Canada Ltd.
Budgen, Mark. 1983. "Tumbler Ridge: Planning the Physical and Social Development of a New Community. Habitat, Vol. 26, pp. 8-12.
Canadian Council on Rural Development. 1976. A Development Strategy for the Mid-North of Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Council of Rural Development.
Castle, E. N., ed. 1995. The Changing American Countryside: Rural People and Places. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Ching, Barbara and Gerald W. Creed, eds. Knowing Your Place: Rural Identity and Cultural Hierarchy. New York: Routledge.
Coates, Ken and William Morrison. 1992. The Forgotten North; A History of Canada's Provincial Norths. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company.
Detomasi, Don D. and John W. Gartrell, eds. 1984. Resource Communities: A Decade of Disruption. Boulder: Westview Press.
Elo, I. T. and C. L. Beale. 1985. Natural Resources and Rural Poverty; An Overview. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future.
Fisher, Dana R. 2001. "Resource Dependency and Rural Poverty: Rural Areas in the United States and Japan." Rural Sociology, Vol. 66, No. 2, June, pp. 181-202.``
Freudenburg, W. R. 1992. "Addictive Economies: Extractive Industries and Vulnerable Localities in a Changing World Economy." Rural Sociology, Vol. 57, pp. 305-32.
Freudenburg, W. R. and L. J. Wilson. 1994. "Natural Resources and Rural Poverty: A Closer Look." Society and Natural Resources, Vol. 7, pp. 5-22.
Lucas, Rex A. 1971. Minetown, Milltown, Railtown: Life in Canadian Communities of Single Industry. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Machlis, G. E. and J. E. Force. 1988. "Community Stability and Timber-Dependent Communities." Rural Sociology, Vol. 53, pp. 221-34.
McIntyre, Bernard G. 1993. Uranium City: The Last Boom Town. Mill Bay, B.C.: Driftwood Publishers.
Peluso, N. L. et al. 1994. "The Rock, the Beach, and the Tidal Pool: People and Poverty in Natural-Resource-Dependent Areas." Society and Natural Resources, Vol. 7, pp. 23-38.
Rural Sociology Society, ed. 1993. Persistent Poverty in Rural America. Boulder: Westview Press.
Scott, James C. And Nina Bhatt, eds. 2001. Agrarian Studies. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Storey, Keith and Mark Shrimpton. 1989. Long Distance Commuting in the Canadian Mining Sector. Kingston: Queen's University.
(5) Gender issues and patriarchal values
Bell, Michael M. And Hung Campbell, eds. 2000. "Rural Masculinities." Special issue of Rural Sociology. Vol. 65, No. 4, December.
Brandth, Berit. 2002. "Gender Identity in European Family Farming." Sociologia Ruralis, Vol/ 42, No. 3, July, pp. 181-200.
Brandth, Berit. 2002. "On the Relationship between Feminism and Farm Women." Agriculture and Human Values, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 107-117.
Brandth, Berit. 1995. "Rural Masculinity in Transition: Gender Images in Tractor Advertisements." Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 123-133.
Connell, R. W. Masculinities. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen and Unwin.
Coontz, Stephanie and Peta Henderson, eds. 1986. Women's Work, Men's Property; The Origins of Gender and Class. London: Verso.
Cornwall, A. And N. Lindisfarne, eds. 1994. Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies. London: Routledge.
Hearn, J. And D. Morgan, eds. 1990. Men, Masculinities and Social Theory. London: Unwin Hyman.
Kimmel, Michael. 2000. "‘White Men Are This Nation:' Right-Wing Militias and the Restoration of Rural American Masculinity." Rural Sociology, Vol. 65, No. 4, December, pp. 582-604.
Knobloch, F. 1996. The Culture of Wilderness: Agriculture as Colonization in the American West. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
di Leonardo, Micaela, ed. 1991. Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge; Feminist Anthropology in the Postmodern Era. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lerner, Gerda. 1986. The Creation of Patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Little, Joe and Owain Jones. 2000. "Masculinity, Gender and Rural Policy." Rural Sociology, Vol. 65, No. 4, December, pp. 621-639.
Mandel, Nancy. 1995. Feminist Issues; Race, Class and Sexuality. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.
Mies, Maria. 1986. Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale; Women in the International Division of Labour. London: Zed Press.
Peter, Gregory et al. 2000. "Coming Back Across the Fence: Masculinity and the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture." Rural Sociology, Vol. 65, No. 2, June, pp. 215-233.
Sachs, Carolyn. 1996. Gendered Fields; Rural Women, Agriculture and Environment. Boulder: Westview Press.
Saugeres, Lise. 2002. "The Cultural Representation of the Farming Landscape: Masculinity, Power and Nature." Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 18, pp. 373-384.
Shortall, Sally. 1999. Women and Farming; Property and Power. London: Macmillan Press.
Walter, G. And S. Wilson. 1996. "Silent Partners: Women in Farm Magazine Success Stories, 1934-1991." Rural Sociology, Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 227-248.
Whatmore, Sarah et al, eds. 1994. Gender and Rurality. London: David Fulton Publishers.
Woodward, R. 1998. "It's a Man's Life! Soldiers, Masculinity and the Countryside." Gender, Place and Culture, Vol. 5, pp. 277-300.
Wright, M. M. 1995. "I Never Did Any Fieldwork, But I Milked an Awful Lot of Cows! Using Women's Experience to Reconceptualize Models of Work." Gender and Society, Vol. 9, pp. 216-235.
(6) Colonialism, racism and First Nations issues
Adams, Howard. 1995. A Tortured People; The Politics of Colonization. Penticton: Theytus Books.
Albers, Patricia and Beatrice Medicine, eds. 1983. The Hidden Half; Studies of Plains Indian Women. New York: University Press of America.
Anderson, Robert Brent. 1999. Economic Development among the Aboriginal Peoples in Canada. North York, Ont.: Captus Press.
Blaut, J. M. 1993. The Colonizer's Model of the World. New York: Guilford Press.
Bodley, John H. 1999. Victims of Progress. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Publishing.
Buckley, Helen. 1992. From Wooden Ploughs to Welfare; Why Indian Policy Failed in the Prairie Provinces. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Bryan, Liz. 1991. The Buffalo People; Prehistoric Archaeology on the Canadian Plains. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.
Carter, Sarah. 1990. Lost Harvests; Prairie Indian Reserve Farmers and Government Policy. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Churchill, Ward. 1997. A Little Matter of Genocide; Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present. San Francisco: City Lights Books.
Dobbin, Murray. 1981. The One-and-a-Half Men; The Story of Jim Brady and Malcolm Norris, The Metis Patriots of the Twentieth Century. Vancouver, New Star Books.
Dyck, Noel. 1991. What is the Indian "Problem"; Tutelage and Resistance in Canadian Indian Administration. St. John's: Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University.
Frideres, James S. 1998. Aboriginal Peoples in Canada; Contemporary Conflicts. Scarborough: Prentice Hall Allyn and Bacon Canada. 5th edition.
Nash, Gary B. 2000. Red, White and Black; The Peoples of Early North America. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Satzewich, Vic and Terry Wotherspoon. 1993. First Nations; Race, Class and Gender Relations. Scarborough: Nelson Canada.
Wright, Ronald. 1993. Stolen Continents; The "New World" Through Indian Eyes. Toronto: Penguin Books.
(7) Resistance to external and local domination
Carroll, William K. 1992. Organizing Dissent; Contemporary Social Movements in Theory and Practice. Toronto: Garamond Press.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1968. Agrarian Socialism; The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan. New York: Doubleday.
Macpherson, C.B. 1962. Democracy in Alberta; Social Credit and the Party System. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Makahonuk, Glen. 1997. Class, State and Power: The Struggle for Trade Union Rights in Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: Canadian Union of Public Employees.
Melnyk, George, ed. 1992. Riel to Reform; A History of Protest in Western Canada. Saskatoon: Fifth House Publishers.
Robin, Martin. 1968. Radical Politics and Canadian Labour, 1880-1930. Kingston: Queen's University Press.
Scott, Alan. 1990. Ideology and the New Social Movements. London: Unwin Hyman.
Sharp, Paul F. 1997. The Agrarian Revolt in Western Canada. Regina: University of Regina, Canadian Plains Research Centre. Reprint with new introductions.
(8) Community development strategies and other alternatives
Altieri, Miguel. 1987. Agroecology: The Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Boulder: Westview Press.
Bello, Walden. 1994. Dark Victory: The United States, Structural Adjustment and Global Poverty. London: Pluto Press for Food First and the Transnational Institute.
Biel, Robert. 2000. The New Imperialism: Crisis and Contradictions in North-South Relations. London: Zed Books.
Fulton, M.E., ed. 1990. Co-operative Organizations and Canadian Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Hines, Colin. 2000. Localization: A Global Manifesto. London: Earthscan.
Houtart, Francois and Francois Polet, eds.. 2001. The Other Davos; The Globalization of Resistance to the World Economic System. London: Zed Books.
MacPherson, Ian. 1979. Each for All; A History of the Co-operative Movement in English Canada, 1900 - 1945. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
McMichael, Philip, ed. 1995. Food and Agrarian Orders in the World-Economy. London: Praeger Books.
Quarter, Jack. 1992. Canada's Social Economy. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company.
Ritzer, G. 1996. The Macdonaldization of Society: An Investigation into the Changing Character of Contemporary Social Life. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Pine Forge Press.
Ross, David P. 1986. From the Roots Up; Economic Development as if Community Mattered. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company for the Canadian Council on Social Development.
Schlosser, E. 2001. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Wilkinson, Paul and Jack Quarter. 1996. Building a Community-Controlled Economy; The Evangeline Co-operative Experience. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
(9) Important journals for this course
Agriculture and Human Values
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture
Human Services in the Rural Environment
International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food
Journal of Rural Studies
Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology
Canadian Journal of Sociology
Canadian Review of Social Policy